History of Early Russian Jet

I-310

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Fighters Yak-15 and MiG-9 from the very beginning of their design considered a temporary measure, preceded more modern day fighter perehvatchika able to operate at high altitudes. Specifications for such vehicles was issued in early 1946, when fully clear on the value of German development sagittal plumage and speed interceptors. The main objective of a new fighter aircraft was to ensure its ability to attack strategic bombers, flying at high altitude. For this purpose it has been equipped with powerful weapons fuel, was to demonstrate the high Rate and manevrnennost at altitudes of more than 10,000 meters, and be capable in the air for at least one hour. Fighter M ikoyana out the winner of the competition with KB Yakovlev and planned and was launched in the mass production under the symbol MiG-15, soon became legendary. All three KB created tsentroplany their aircraft under reliable and powerful rocket engines and Rolls-Royce Nene-I Derwent-V, dozens of whom were inadvertently sold Labor government of Great Britain in September and October 1946 These engines were immediately launched into series of stamps proizodstvo RD-45 and RD-500. Their capacity is 2,720 kg, has been much higher than the German engine stavivshihsya the first samples sky.

First production MiG-15 (64k)
The first serial MiG-15 [13]

The first flight of MiG-15 was held on December 30, 1947 and soon to Kuybyshevskom flight began its mass production. MiG-15, armed with two 23-mm cannons, which was later added another 37 mm gun and was sent in autumn 1948 in the Air Force Research Institute for testing. At first MiGah was RD-45 engine thrust 2,200 kg, later replaced by an even more powerful RD-45 F to speed fighter 1050 km / h at ground level and 983 kilometres per hour at an altitude of 10,000 metres in the weight fully running in 4800 kg. These characteristics have made MiG-15 and the easiest at the same time, the fastest fighter at the time.

Nevertheless, the new Soviet fighter aircraft, while answering fully specifications 1948 no cost and without flaws. He had a dangerous tendency to pill went on too steep and was thrilled with the fragile flight at high speed when approaching the speed of sound vibrations started strong corps. Apparatus fighters were of poor quality and neergonomichnymi by Western standards, and the cabin is too close. Experience operational use of the aircraft in Korea showed that the number is not high enough guns and MiG-15 placed in a disadvantageous position in fighting with American Seybrami F-86, albeit armed with a smaller fire, but a quick cannons. Despite all these shortcomings, the MiG-15 was a big step forward and allow the Soviet Union to achieve the status of one of the world leaders in the field of jet fighter aircraft.

MiG-15 participated for the first time in combat against American fighter planes in Korea in November 1950 and soon flying parts fitted with the new Soviet fighter was considered one of the most effective components of the North Korean army. MiG-15, on the whole quite vulnerable to American Seybrov with a quick-firing their weapons, radar sight, and, most importantly, better-trained pilots showed, however, much better Rate, superiority in the ceiling and a smaller turning radius at the high altitude of compared with its main opponent, while its powerful 37 mm gun was capable of a few moments to empty strictly flying at high altitude American B-29 bombers, at least until their was no effective escort. Chinese pilots and their Soviet trainers operating from airfields north of the River Yalu preferred attacks rear pikirovaniya, lapel after the first call and use the best rate of climb to the sky clear of the enemy. Sky Pilots usually try to avoid air battles and if they nastigali, pilots tried using shots of the engine and the tail or to eject, and not try to avoid tactics that could allow the enemy to enter into the pilot cabin [8,9] . More sophisticated tactics included the use of lures and groups, starting with 1952 g, where south of the Yalu for fighting with the F-86 was the escape group, consisting of 80 or even 100 aircraft was used their separation in height, build, tested for the first time Kubany spring 1943 at the end of the war in Korea, the Chinese air force had 2000 MiGov out of a total of 4000 by the USSR. 850 planes were shot, and more than 1,000 lost as a result of injuries, accidents or breakdowns [10].

Work on four modifications to the base model MiG began shortly after the start of mass production. MiG-15 bis was improved version of conventional fighter with a better radio and electronic equipment cited in the motion engine BK-1 with traction 2700 kg razarabotannym Klimovym based engine Nene. The aircraft has been tested in late 1949 and replaced MiG-15 on the next conveyer, 1950 Double fitness MiG-15 UTI issued in 1949 to solve the problem of training pilots and replaced only when training jet fighter Yak-17 UTI . The modified MiG-15 UTI, equipped with an on-board radar Emerald deployed by Air intake was devoted to a version of MiG-15 after the failure of all-weather fighter aircraft Sukhoi Su-15, a prototype of which crashed in 1948 Emerald later put to a single MiG-15 bis, MiG won title -15 P (perehvatchik). More radical model MiG designed to overcome the limitations of aerodynamics known as MiG-17 and started production in January 1950. Since the beginning of 1950, manually. and now stands “MIG” is a worldwide synonym for the term “Russian fighter”.

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© E. M. Kovalev, 1999-2000

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