Archive for October, 2007

Status of Chinese military aviation in the eyes of Russian

October 31, 2007

On the facade air power PRC looked more than impressive. But uncritical perception and analysis of news media could create a false picture of the reader. In fact, in the view of many specialists, the situation with the Chinese military aviation retrofitting modern technology and weapons, can be described as critical.

The most unpleasant to guide China is the fact that, despite the half (not counting experiments 20-30-nineties) aircraft history, China has never managed to create and run a series of single aircraft of its own design. All machines serially proizvodivshiesya in China, or were accurate (most often licensing) copy foreign models, or were built with the most extensive use of foreign components and technologies.

Furthermore, when examining the history of Chinese companies, striking its uneven development. From 1950 to 2006 year can be allocated two periods of development with a long break between them.

Start of the first period roughly coincides with the emergence of China in the 1949 year. With the assistance of the USSR, China has access to the most advanced at that time, aviation technology and production facilities. Since the early 50-s to the mid 60-s (before the break with the USSR) were transferred to China technology and equipment, resulting in the production of fighter aircraft to run J-2 (MiG-15), J-5 (MiG-17), J-6 ( MiG-19), J-7 (MiG-21), bombers H-4 (TU-4), H-5 (IL-28), H-6 (Tu-16), military transport aircraft Y-8 ( AN-12) and helicopters.

As a result, by mid-60-nineties China was well advanced in its composition and the Air Force prepared in the USSR inzhenerno-konstruktorsky composition capable of maintaining equipment in the Air Force at the appropriate level. But, after the break relations with the Soviet Union and the Cultural Revolution began, in the Chinese aircraft began to stagnate.

As a result, by the end of the 70-nineties, China had strictly and in the production of virtually the same set of aircraft pervogo-vtorogo generation, and that for twenty years before, while the USSR and the United States already complete production of the third generation of aircraft and trained to Fourth series. Its forces have managed to make Chinese engineers in the design of machines Soviet develop only small changes dictated, first of all, the Vietnam War experience.

The supreme achievement of the aviation industry of China in this period was the establishment bombers Q-5 and fighter J-8. But these machines can not be considered separate developments, they represented a profound modification of the construction of MiG-19 and MiG-21.

Then, in the 70-80 th century XX years, and defined niche in the world market for Chinese aircraft. The buyer of aircraft “made in China” have become the poorest countries in the world, such as Bangladesh, North Korea, Uganda, Albania, and others. In addition, a large portion of Chinese exports to Pakistan accounted for aircraft, which is a partnership with China was due to hostile relations of the two countries with India.

By the end of 80 years, the backlog of Chinese Air Force world class opredelyavshegosya mostly Soviet and American developments, was disastrous. The main Air Force fighter China remained a modified MiG-21, while the USSR and the United States are already equipped most of the aviation units fourth-generation aircraft-F-15, F-16, MiG-29, Su-27 and other machines.

Chinese authorities have not believing in the possibility of bridging the gap fast, saw the exit to gain access to modern Western and Soviet aviation technology.

The second period in the development of the Chinese companies began in 1988 year with the receipt of Israel’s technological assistance and documentation package to help copy the Lavi fighter. Based on the Israeli car was set up easy Chinese fighter J-10, in their TTH and opportunities related equipment around fighter aircraft F-16 and MiG-29 production of the second half of 80-ies. However, the situation marred by the fact that J-10 was launched in the production of only 15 years later in 2004 year.

Following the establishment of contacts with Israel, China resumed connection USSR, with whom relations have become normal in the mid 80’s. In 1989 Godou USSR and China signed a number of agreements on cooperation in the military-technical sphere, and since that time most of the achievements of China’s aviation industry associated with the reproduction of Russian technologies and designs.

These “passes” in the modern world has become a channel to China Aviation licenses and technological assistance in the development of fighter aircraft Su-27, as well as supplies from Russia aircraft Su-30MKK established on the basis of Su-27. Delivery of the aircraft allowing China to obtain a qualitative advantage over Air Force neighbors notably Taiwan, South Korea and Japan, and the match Opportunity deployed in the region to parts of the Air Force and Navy aviation.

Currently, China is actively trying to catch up, improving purchased aircraft and designing their own. However, it should be noted that the root of China’s aviation industry shortcomings and design schools are still not resolved.

For example, China still has not been able to develop its own aeronautical konkuretnosposobny engine. Moreover, China has so far not been able to copy and build self-engine AL-31 installed in aircraft Su-27 and their modifications. Engines produced in China for “Suszek” delivered from Russia in disassembled form, and in China is only their assembly and refinement. Also engines installed on Russian fighter jets J-10.

Another problem is lagging behind China in the field of radio electronics. To obtain the missing information, China has to actively pursue exploration. In particular, there are attempts to obtain information about the Chinese system of fire stations and optiko-lokatsionnyh Russian fighters Su-27, on the possibility of a superior machine equipment provided by China.

Access to modern technology for China is complicated and even sanctions the European Union and the United States at the end of the last century. Despite attempts to change the situation, cooperation with Russia is actually the only “window” through which China receives equipment and know-how to maintain its design school at the minimum required level.

It is known that China is striving to change the situation and get rid of technological dependence. Over the past decades, such attempts have remained unsuccessful. Does the situation change in the future, time will tell.
Ilya Kramnik,


October 31, 2007

The whole idea of sweeping an aircraft’s wing is to delay the drag rise caused by the formation of shock waves. The swept-wing concept had been appreciated by German aerodynamicists since the mid-1930s, and by 1942 a considerable amount of research had gone into it. However, in the United States and Great Britain, the concept of the swept wing remained virtually unknown until the end of the war. Due to the early research in this area, this allowed Germany to successfully introduce the swept wing in the jet fighter Messerschmitt ME-262 as early as 1941.

Early British and American jet aircraft were therefore of conventional straight-wing design, with a high-speed performance that was consequently limited. Such aircraft included the UKGloster Meteor F.4 , the U.S. Lockheed F-80 Sooting Star and the experimental U.S. jet, the Bell XP-59A Airacomet.

After the war German advanced aeronautical research data became available to the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) as well as Great Britain. This technology was then incorporated into their aircraft designs. Some early jets that took advantage of this technology were the North American F-86 Sabre, the Hawker Hunter F.4 and the Supermarine Swift FR.5.

Not to be outdone, the Soviet Union introduced the swept wing in the Mikoyan Mig-15 in 1947. This aircraft was the great rival of the North American F-86 Sabre during the Korean War.

October 28, 2007

In the second-half of the 50th is annual OKB Of a.I.Mikoyana it approached the works on the creation of heavy high-speed and high-altitude fighter-interceptors E -150, E -152 (E -166) and E -152M, intended for dealing with the promising supersonic bombers. In the course of the tests of these machines the speed of 2680 km/h and ceiling 22670 m was achieved, the practical finalizing of promising weapon systems was conducted. The obtained reserve made it possible to approach the creation of the more powerful combat aircraft, capable of destroying such purposes as bombers Convair V -58 “Hustler” and North American KHV-“0” Valkyrie “, and also reconnaisance aircraft Lockheed Sr -71 (in THE USSR about existence of this top secret program it became known in 1960, in two years prior to the first flight of the American of mashiny).E-yshchshchP the study of the appearance of new aircraft began BY OKB -155 together with TSAGI – CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF AEROHYDRODYNAMICS IM. N YE ZHUKOVSKIY and other branch scientific centers the countries in 1959, and in 1961 was accepted the fundamental solution about the creation of the machine, which received working index E. Were examined the diverse variants of layout – with one- and twin endplate fins, with PGO, by the wing of the variable geometry, by lift engines and the like as a result Of a.I.Mikoyan selected normal aerodynamic configuration with the twin endplate fins and the highly placed tapered wing. E-155P1In the Party spirit- government decision on program E -155 left during February 1961, and on 10 March of the same year Mikoyan published order on OKB about the beginning of the design of new machine. Works headed M.I.Gurevich, which subsequently replaced chief designer n.Z.Matyuk. E -155 from the very beginning was developed in three versions (fighter-interceptor (E -155P), high-altitude intelligence officer (E -155R) and carrier BR (E -155N)), that have the minimum structural differences (from the last version more lately they refused). In this case was posed the problem of creating combat aircraft, capable of carrying out cruise at a velocity, which corresponds Of m=2,shch-e,0, which indicated overcoming the “thermal barrier”, since temperature of stagnation with M=2,8e composes 290oS.E-yshchshchPy significant problem it presented the selection of power plant for the new machine. Was examined the possibility of using the promising engines OF OKB Of p.A.Kolesova and A.M.Lyul’ki, that are located in the stage of development. However, subsequently selection was stopped on TRDF – TURBOJET ENGINE WITH AFTERBURNER OF RYSHCHB-E00 Of a.A.Mikulina, which was the development of the short-life engine of yshchK, created for pilotless LA (“121” and “123” Tupolev) and finished on E -150 and E -152. Stainless high-temperature (strength) steel was selected as the basic construction material. Fighter-interceptor E -155P had to interact with the automated system of ground guidance “air -1”. It it was intended to equip BRLS of “water spout”, the created on the base station “water spout”, established on the interceptor Tu-128. The initially basic armament of new aircraft had to become rockets K -9M; however, subsequently it was decided to employ the new rockets K -40, prepared with the use of titanium alloys. The work of model commission for E -155P began in 1962, on 15 June, 1963, was affirmed technical task for the interceptor. The first flight of experimental aircraft E -155P took place on 9 September, 1964, (test pilot P.M.Ostapenko), half a year after the beginning of the flight tests of intelligence officer E -155R. The joint official tests of interceptor were begun during December 1965 and were completed during April 1970. During September 1969 the fighter-interceptor under the polygon conditions with the aid of the rocket R -40R for the first time brought down real flight vehicle – airborne target MiG-155P1 testings of fundamentally new machine they tightened themselves. On 30 October 1967 g, with an attempt at the establishment of the record of rate of climb, perished the chief test pilot HII OF VVS Colonel I.I.Lesnikov. On 26 April, 1969, on MiG-25P, which piloted the air force commander PVO – AIR DEFENSE General Anatoliy kadomtsev, arose the fire of engine and pilot perished. The detachment of the turbine blade became the reason for fire, and by consequence – delay of the beginning of the series production of aircraft, modification of engine and establishment of the new limitation of permissible temperatures on the turbine. On 13 June, 1972, to the armament was accepted the complex of interception MiG-40 in the composition: aircraft-interceptor MiG-25P (article 84), the rockets R -40 of class “air-to-air”, the system of radio-command earth based guidance “azure” and so forth in 1973 were completed troop tests. The number of changes was introduced on the sums of plant and official tests into the construction of aircraft and engine. In particular, to wing they gave the negative dihedral angle, equal to -5°, established the increased “fins” on the ends of the consoles (from which then they refused, after increasing the area of keels and after decreasing the surface of the crests under the fuselage), they introduced the differentially slanted stabilizer. The modification of stabilizer cost the life of test pilot. On 4 October, 1973, during the airport approach at the height of 500 m and at the high speed Of o.V.Gudkov it broke, after entering into the unguided rotation. MiG-25P6 with UR R -40 series output of aircraft they unrolled in 1971 at the Gor’kiy plant № of 21 (aviation production association im. Sergo of Ordzhonikidze; now Nizhniy-Novgorod state aircraft factory “falcon”) in the cooperation with The dubninskim Machine Building Plant (in the course of building the first series there were made the fuselages of the destroyers, which then along the Volga were transported into the the g.Gor’kiy for the final assembling). Since the beginning of the 70th it is annual MiG-25P they began to enter the combatant fighter aviation units of air defense forces. For the creation of aircraft MiG-25 the group of six designers obtained the Lenin prize. These were: Rostislav belyakov, Hikola1 Matyuk, Fedor shukhov (designer of engine R -15B-300), Fedor volkov (designer OF RP-2SHCH of “water spout”), Ivan silayev (the works manager № of 21 in Gor’kiy) and Aleksey minayev (designer of control system). The appearance of new destroyers sharply decreased the activity of American intelligence officers Lockheed Sr -71, it is earlier than very “boldly” approached borders of the Soviet Union in the north and the Far East. On the basis of operating experience began the work on the modernization RLS of “water spout” into the versions “water spout -A1”, “the water spout -A2”, “Water spout- AE” and “water spout -A4”. In the process of modernization some possibilities of target detection against the background of earth and reduction in the height of the intercepted purposes appeared. On 6 September, 1976, occurred the event, which substantially influenced the fate of the interceptor: Senior Lieutenant V.Belenko completed overflight on MiG-25P into Japan, after landing in the airport of Khakodate on Hokkaido island and after making thus secret aircraft by the property of American specialists. Despite the fact that the machine was soon returned BY THE USSR, Americans had time to thoroughly become acquainted with construction and BREO of interceptor, in consequence of which soon, on 4 November, 1976, followed the decision of government about the urgent modification of aircraft, which is concerned first of all of the radical modernization of its weapon system. Work on the creation of the new modification of fighter-interceptor was executed within the shortest periods and, in 1977, was once released the finished interceptor MiG-25PD. In 1978 Gor’kiy aircraft factory began its series output of aircraft. From 1979 through 1982 all MiG-25P the Soviet AIR FORCE passed re-equipment at the repair plants into the version MiG-25PDS, appropriate MiG-25PD. E -155P5 (1967) with UR R -40Rekordy MiG-25 was the first in the world series destroyer, which reached the boundary of the velocity of 3000 km/h. It became record holder according to the number of established world records (29), of them 3 – absolute. In contrast to Sr -71, on MiG-25 with the speed of 2,shchM and weight 30 T. were allowed the overloads to 5g. this it allowed it to establish speed records on the short closed routes. During November of 1967 M.M.Komarov flew 500- km the closed route with an average speed of 2930 km/h. In THE FAYES record version MiG-25 was registered as by E -266. Of modifications for the instruction of crew into 1969 was created and neglected into a series combat training aircraft MiG-25PU. In the middle of the 60th conducted the work on the creation of the modification of destroyer E -155PA, capable of intercepting the targets, which fly at the speed to 3500-4000 km/h and the heights of 100-30000 m. In 1972 the work on the modernization of interceptor was continued, and new E -155M (E -266M) established 6 world records. State. MiG-25 in series it were let out from 1969 through 1982. Were built 1190 aircraft MiG-25 all modifications, including it is more than 900 interceptors MiG-25P and MiG-25PDwarnings E-150, E-152 E-152M dВ-58 «Хастлер» и Норт Америкэн ХВ-70 XB-70 ” Lockheed SR-71 E-155P1
MiG-25P6 SD-R-40

world records

МиГ-25ПУ MiG-25PU.
Е-155ПА , Е-155М (

MiG 15 Rutube

October 28, 2007

黄鹤楼送孟浩然之广陵 李 白

October 27, 2007

黄鹤楼送孟浩然之广陵 李 白




October 27, 2007




October 27, 2007








Col. Yevgeni Georgievich Pepelyayev, Soviet Ace

October 17, 2007

yvengeni.gifCol. Yevgeni Georgievich Pepelyayev was one of best MiG-15 Fagot pilots and was also one of the Top Aces of the war. He commanded the 196th IAP, 324th IAD, and he obtained 23 kills in Korea -19 were official and the other 4 were possible victories- distributed among 12 F-86s, five F-80s, four F-84s and two F-94s. His first victory happened on May 20 1951 (a F-86), and the last one occured at the beginning of the next year, on January 15 1951, against a Sabre too. But he obtained his most famous air-to-air victories on July 11 and October 6 1951 (both Sabre kills).

pepelyaevsmig.jpg Drawing of the MiG-15bis Fagot # 1315325 (“325”), plane used by Colonel Yevgeni Pepelyaev on October 6th 1951 to shotdown the F-86 BuNo 49-1319. With this aircraft Pepelyaev obtained 17 of his 19 official air victories.

Study of captured Sabres by Soviet retired Colonel Evgueni Pepeliaev

October 16, 2007

pepeliaev.jpgIt was at the beginning of the years 1950, in the Korean sky, when the Soviet and American pilots became for the first time of the adversaries. “In the absolute secrecy we were dispatched in Korea, country in full war at the time, remembers Evgueni Pepeliaev. – We engaged in the operations on April 1, 1951. I ordered the 196e regiment of hunting. At the time, the Americans entirely controlled the sky. Even their bombers did not fear to operate day. Before our arrival, the American pilots drove out not only vehicles on the roads but also civil, Korean the and Chinese ones, while drawing on them. Two months afterwards, we put a term at their superiority. Their bombers stopped flying in full day. The Americans started to equip their units by the very recent hunter F-86 Sabre. We flew on the Mig. From the point of view of the performances, the two apparatuses were almost with equality, but each one had, obviously, its advantages. The Mig was higher in the vertical combat, thanks to a higher ceiling. The American hunter, thanks to a better aerodynamics, was more maneuverable horizontally. The difference in maximum speeds was negligible. The Mig had a superiority crushing in fire power on any American hunter of the time. The Sabre had very poor weapons compared to the Mig, but its automatic sight was without equal. The Mig exceeded also the American hunter of viability. I remember that pilots were posed while returning of missions with forty holes in their apparatuses! With two recoveries, my plane was touched. The pilots of my regiment achieved nearly 4.000 missions on the whole. With their credit, 108 enemy planes cut down. Our losses amounted to 10 Mig Four of my pilots died, six succeeded in being ejected. In other words, my 196e regiment, in the aerial combats with the US Air Force, had a score of victories from 1 to 10 in our favour. Usually, between twelve and thirty-five Soviet hunters took share with the aerial combats against Sabres. The Americans made a point of restoring their air superiority. But, reacting painfully to the losses, they often gave up the combat. My notebook contains notes on 108 missions and 39 aerial combats. On the whole, I cut down 23 planes. With their number, two F-94 Starfire, F-80 Shooting Star, F-84 Thunderjet, and the remainder it was of F-86 Sabre. All these planes belonged to the US Air Force. Very fighter pilot keeps in general in his memory the engagements where it failed to be cut down itself. A combat is held at very high speeds and with colossal overloads, the pilots suffer from sight trouble and lose consciousness from it. It is once on the ground which one remembers certain episodes of an air duel. It was one morning of July 1951. Eight reconnaissance aircraft F-94 regained their aerodrome in two four, at an altitude of 8.000 meters. We fell apart and, of start, after a turn of combat, we engaged a bringing together. I caught up with them 4 minutes after the take-off, making the decision to attack with a group of four planes under my orders the four F-94 of behind. To the commander of the second flotilla, I gave the order to attack the four of front. I saw my shells well reaching the belly of F-94, fragments of his coating to be detached one after the other in the explosions. Another F-94 which flew on my left, entered a deep spiral. I continued it. I remember very well that in spiral, to a distance of 100 meters or even slightly more, I sent an average gust to him, so as to tear off his tail. At full speed, I entered remains. Fortunately that I lowered the head, they did not touch me. By way of proof of our victories, one brought on the aerodrome of the elements of the planes which we cut down. This empennage of F-94 was also deposited to him. I remember to have cut down on October 6, 1951 a Sabre which had thereafter to be posed urgently on the territory of the North Korea. I practised a maneuver diversion which I had worked out well in times of peace. It always made a success of me. In course of collision, I showed with the adversary that I engaged a turn of upward combat on the left, but actually I left on the right. Thus, after a turn, F-86 was found opposite me, at a distance from 80 to 100 meters. After my maneuvre, I saw the Sabre in my collimator. I sent a gust in his direction. I saw one of my shells immediately touching the plane behind the canopy of the cabin. The plane fell but the pilot knew to pose it on a bank. This Sabre was led on our aerodrome from where it was sent in Moscow. My pilots and me we could go up in his cabin which had remained intact. This Sabre rendered a great service to us. The Americans had air ventilated suits which enabled them to support the overloads much more easily and to be tired. At the time, we did not have such clothing yet, on the other hand, those of the trophies already did not miss. But we did not have the governor automatically-controlled which had remained on the cut down aircraft. “My” Sabre had a perfect gyroscopic horizon. The Mig at the time were equipped with a bad apparatus. To the pilot, it did not make it possible to make a band of more than 40°. There was indeed evil to be directed, by forming large angles of rise and descent. As for our engineers, this Sabre their provided matter to reflexion. On the Mig, there was already a normal gyroscopic horizon and a good sight. The study of the engine of the Sabre was also great utility. Colonel Evgueni Pepeliaev, Hero of the Soviet Union, 89 years, lives in Moscow. He is known as the author of a book with success, “the Mig ones against the Sabres”, on the air war in Korea (1950-1953). Remarks collected by Iouri Ploutenko

sailing race start sequence

October 14, 2007

Racing Rules of Sailing – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: “Start Signal These signal flags are used in the pre-start procedure. Class flags can be numeral pennants 1 , 2 , and 3 however they can be substituted to avoid confusion with the postponement signals relating to a particular class. When one race signal is displayed over one class flag, the race signal is intended to be read only by that class, and has no effect for the other class. For some classes the class flag is a special, own designed, flag, while for some other classes a flag taken from the International maritime signal flag set are used. The following table shows an example start sequence for Class or Division 3 fleet. Flag Signal Number of sound signals when raised Number of sound signals when lowered Description 3 ↑ Warning Signal. 5 minutes to race start when class flag raised. 3 P ↑ Preparatory signal. 4 minutes to start when P flag raised. Flag P used or if a starting penalty applies I, Z, Black flag or I over Z is used in place of P. 3 P ↓ Long Sound Preparatory signal. P flag removed 1 minute before start. Flag P used or if a starting penalty applies I, Z, Black flag or I over Z is used in place of P. 3 ↓ Start Signal. Race start when class flag removed.