Archive for the ‘turbojet’ Category


December 5, 2007

 Airplane La-176, which is December 28, 1948 overcame “sonic booms”

In 1948,aircraft La-176 aviakonstruktora SA Lavochkina broke the sound barrier. Engineering and technical research ideas Struminskogo are at the heart of creation, in particular, aircraft MiG-15, excellent proven in the 50-s during the fighting in Korea …

Klimov Fighter Aircraft Engines

October 13, 2007

Klimov Fighter Aircraft Engines (part 1/2)

Origins of German jet power

September 16, 2007

Origins of German jet power: “HeS 3B July of 1939 saw the first flight tests, using an He 118, of von Ohain’s HeS 3B centrifugal turbojet.
HeS 3B Cutaway view of the Heinkel HeS 3B in the Deutsches Museum. Picture shows a rebuilt example after the war. HeS 3B In 1939 the HeS 3B produced a thrust of 450 – 500 kp. The axial low-pressure compressor had eight blades while the centrifugal-flow compressor had 16. He 178 A second HeS 3B was fitted to the He 178 prototype which made the first true purely on turbojet power on august 27, 1939.
Although no spectacular performer, the succes of the He 178 made an enormous impact on the RLM and swelled the ranks of jet aircraft protagonists. Video First flight of the He-178 (6.6Mb).

Heinkel He-178, with the first turbine engine of the world, HeS-3B

September 15, 2007 ” Heinkel decided to build two specimens of them: the He-178V-1 equipped with the HeS-3B engine and the He-178V equipped with the HeS-6 engine then under development. He-178 Heinkel He-178 had a cylindrical fuselage of section, of oval profile, with air intake frontal and exhaust nozzle at the back end of the fuselage.The rolling tests began on August 24, 1939, then the great day arrived for Heinkel, Von Ohain and Warsitz, on August 27, 1939, with the first gleams of the morning. The program was as follows: takeoff of He-178 by its own means, straight line, turn, turn of the ground and landing. All occurred in accordance with the plan, the flight lasted six minutes at an altitude of two approximately thousand meters. He-178 On the official side did not have, this time still, not to miss disappointments Heinkel. The same morning, at 4 a.m. 30, the principal promoter of the first jet which had just flown in an entirely autonomous way telephoned Ernst Udet. Here how it told later this episode in its autobiography entitled “Stürmische Leben” (a stormy life): “II was necessary one moment so that Udet answers, of a deadened tone and grumbler. Hello, say to him I, here Heinkel, I wanted to simply to say you that the Warsitz captain has just flown successfully the first jet of the world, He-178, with the first turbine engine of the world, HeS-3B, and that it landed without difficulty”.

Heinkel 178 & HeS 3B

September 15, 2007

冯.欧海因的涡轮喷气发动机与 He 178

   梅塞施密特 Me 262 的诞生是德国自 1930 年代中期就开始的涡轮喷气发动机研发的必然结果。德国的喷气发动机研究源自航空工程师汉斯-约阿西姆.帕勃斯特.冯.欧海因(Hans-Joachim Pabst Von Ohain)的一项燃气涡轮专利。与此同时,英国皇家空军的福兰克.惠特尔(Frank Whittle)少校也开始了燃气涡轮发动机的研究工作。(左图:战后的冯.欧海因)

1933 年冯.欧海因正在哥廷根(Goettingen)大学攻读博士学位时,开始研究以燃气轮机为基础设计先进航空发动机的可行性。虽然当时人们都认为燃气轮机的重量不适合用做航空发动机,但他还是在机械师马克斯.汉恩(Max Hahn)的帮助下,在车库中完成了一个“涡轮喷气发动机”的演示模型。


  冯.欧海因设法说服他的教授,R.W.波尔(R.W. Pohl)来观看一次模型发动机的试车。这肯定给波尔教授留下了深刻印象。波尔教授思想开明,人缘很好,1936 年他写信将冯.欧海因博士推荐给恩斯特.海因克尔。恩斯特.海因克尔如获至宝,但令他头疼的是:欧海因对他的发明守口如瓶,于是只得在 1936 年 4 月 授命欧海因领导一组开发人员开始研发实用性的喷气发动机。

1937 年 9 月,冯.欧海因小组拿出了一台测试原型机,但在时间上已经落后惠特尔测试原型机 6 个月了。一开始,这台原型机只能燃烧氢气,不能使用标准燃料,随后马克思.汉恩将其改进成可以燃烧煤油。

样机初步成功,恩斯特.海因克尔指示欧海因再制造一台可用于飞行测试的发动机,编号 HeS 3。HeS 3 完成后,1939 年 5 月捆绑在一架 He 118 俯冲轰炸机上试飞。虽然几个月后发动机烧毁,但从中积累的经验已经足够制造一架纯喷气动力的实验飞机——海因克尔 He 178,该机的动力是改进过的 HeS 3B 发动机,重约 360 公斤,推力 380 公斤,推重比稍大于 1。后来 He 178 又换装了推力 590 公斤的 HeS 6。

HeS 3B 离心式喷气发动机结构图

  He 178 看起来像是一具飞行烟囱,头部进气,机身笔直。采用高置梯形机翼和常规尾翼布局,发动机安装在机身中部。该机具有可收放的后三点起落架,主起落架收入机身下部。

规格 数据
翼展 8.13 m
长度 7.5 m
空重 1,560 kg
正常重量 1,995 kg
极速 700 Km/H

1939 年 8 月 27 日——就在大战爆发前几天,He 178 在保密状态下完成了首次飞行。首次飞行持续了 5 分钟,飞行员报告:“飞机没有振动并且没有螺旋桨飞机的扭矩效应。飞行平稳……感觉棒极了!”冯.欧海因现在赶在了惠特尔之前。惠特尔的努力陷入沼泽中, 由于政府和军方目光短浅,直到 1941 年 5 月,使用惠特尔喷气发动机的格罗斯特 E-28/39 才飞上天空。

保存在英国科学博物馆的 E.28-39